In this article, Yale psychologist Irving Janis begun exploring the concept of Groupthink. As Janis put it, "Groupthink refers to a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgement that results from in-group pressures." I am strongly persuaded by the point that Janis have made. It really means that people, as a group, were not acting and thinking as intelligently as they could be. Instead, they make conclusions and then moved forward without an openness to new information and without considering changes in direction. What is interesting in this article is that the writer put juxtaposition of the concept of Groupthink and Groupthink of President Kennedy's mistake on a war with communist countries such as Russia and Cuba.
What I've learned from this article is that Leaders at any level of any form of the group can learn from the case study of Kennedy. And this article let us know that Groupthink is a best thing that a leader can do prevent. And In order to make final decision, group needs to take a step back from his or her team, and allow the group to reach its own independent consensus. Good leaders can also be helpful by encouraging the members of the group to speak their minds openly so that different perspectives are discussed and debated.