Wednesday, April 30, 2014

Separated, but not Forgotten!

In this article, there are some thoroughly interesting examples of unique relationships between identical twins. They have some unlikely examples of things similar things happening, like two twins breaking the same arm on the same day, etc. However, what I found the most fascinating, from a psychological standpoint, is the story of two identical-twin sisters who were separated at birth as part of a controversial psychological study. The two sisters met for the first time at age 35, only to discover that they had led nearly identical lives! They were both editors of their high school newspaper, studied film at university, and became writers, as well as very similar personality traits and interests (they claim in an interview). This essentially disproves the theory that environment plays a dominant role for establishing characteristics. But then again, the two siblings were raised in the same country, with seemingly similar financial situations. They also seem to be a one-in-a-million kind of case, otherwise they would not have been featured in this article about strange occurences in twins. What I do find really interesting is the level at which they have a similar connection in their interests. With no communication between the two, what is it that made them go down similar routes in their lives? I would love to read some of their writing and get a small glimpse into their inner-psyche, and then of course compare the two.

Tuesday, April 29, 2014


This article was intriguing because it classifies and defines aggression in a clear understandable manner. The article defines aggression as behavior that is meant to hurt other physically mentally or verbally. Aggression is further broken up into two groups, hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. Hostile aggression is the more commonly noticed and is associated with explosive anger displayed in an uncontrolled unplanned manner. The goal of the hostile aggressive person is to hurt the person they are being aggressive toward. The second form of aggression is instrumental aggression which I find more disturbing. Instrumental aggression is defined as a means to an end. The goal of the instrumental aggressive is to use their aggression to obtain something such as money or status. This less noticeable form of aggression is associated with competitive controlled goal oriented people. Men are much more likely to exhibit signs of hostile aggression while the opposite is true for women with instrumental aggression. I find this interesting and I believe it is why many of my female friends are far more competitive then my male friends. I believe this is due to hormones that we as humans must have developed in the hunter gatherer times and have maintained since for survival purposes.

Public Speaking Anxiety

I found this article really interesting because it breaks down all the steps and thinking patterns of someone who is experiencing public speaking anxiety. The article breaks the thought processes of the anxious person down into four separate detrimental ways of thinking. The first is black and white thinking. This is when the presenter thinks that either their presentation is going to be all good or all bad. The second thinking process is over generalization. Over generalization is the act of believing that one mistake is going to develop into a pattern. This is seen by the presenter believing that one bad presentation is a sign that all presentations they do will be bad. The third detrimental thought process the anxious person may exhibit is jumping to conclusions. This is seen when the presenter believes they will get negative feedback for a presentation if they make a mistake even when there is no evidence to suggest that. The final negative way of thinking is fortune telling. This is when the presenter believes they will do poorly no matter how much preparation they have. I believe the last thought process is the worst to have because it can ruin a presentation before it even starts. If the presenter believes from the beginning that they will fail all preparation for their presentation will be fruitless.

Forbes - How to Prepare for Presentations

How to Prepare for Presentations

This Forbes article explains in depth how to prepare for a large presentation. For starters, reading from a script is not okay. The author goes on to explain how even when you rehearse, you should practice as if you are presenting the real thing. The author then goes on to provide tips on practicing presentations in a "real-world way." The first tip is to practice at a location similar to the final presentation area. The second tip is to keep an eye on posture and movement. In a presentation, this can really help create life behind the presentation. The next tip is to pace the talk. Slowing down the speech and incorporating speech tactics, such as dramatic pauses, will help relieve anxiety for yourself and create a friendlier atmosphere for the audience. The last tip that the author provides is to simplify everything. By shortening long sentences and getting to the point, more emphasis will be put on facts that are most important. This will also provide clarity and professionalism.

Video Game Aggression

Video Game Aggression
In this article the commonly brought up argument, that violent video games increase aggression in children, is addressed. The author argues that the results of many research experiments may be flawed due to fact that different video games may have other factors that trigger violent behavior and aggression.  The author then brings up the fact that many studies also lead to the conclusion that competition also creates aggression, which begs the question of whether or not competition is the key to aggression.

This article was very interesting to me because it offers an interesting take on the commonly referenced debate. I believe that as violent video game experiences are more realistic and immersive, this psychological dilemma must be thoroughly addressed and studied.

Monday, April 28, 2014

Jurors Hear Evidence and Turn It Into Stories

Found in the NY Times, Jurors Hear Evidence and Turn It Into Stories is an article that provides interesting information about how jurors used to create stories in their heads about what happened in a case, based on how the information is presented. This was because before the cooperation of judges, jurors weren’t able to ask questions or take notes to allow them to understand all the information given during the trial.  They would have to piece together information, which is how the stories were created.  By creating a study of a realistically acted out case, Dr. Pennington and Dr. Hastie tested how the stories created by the juries were important in their decision.  The difference in class within the jury effected how they imagined what had happened and who they sided with.  In another study by Dr. Hans, it found that people tried to explain a case in their head by figuring out how the victim could not have been a victim (what they could have done to avoid it).  It finally discusses the scientific selection of the juries and how lawyers can eliminate jurors to favor what outcome they want. When thinking about this is terms of social psychology, the side the juror leans towards is determined by the story created through the evidence, which in term relates to the jurors life and how they perceive the situation.  The way they perceive the information is influenced by their stereotypes, etc. Stated in the article, “whites trust the honesty and fairness of the police far more than blacks”.  With all of these factors that can influence the jury, how do we create a better system that reducing them in order have a more fair ruling.  It has been started by allowing jurors to ask questions and take notes, and other recommendations have been provided, but I am not sure it will ever be truly fixed because the jurors’ background, environment, ingrained stereotypes, views, etc. will always have an influence in their view of what happened.

Epigenetics in Nature vs. Nurture on Identical Twins

This video illustrates what recent studies have shown about differences between twins and environmental factors.  Specifically, it discusses how epigenomes may be the cause for the differences in relation to the environment.  The epigenome interacts with DNA to either activate or silence particular genes; the ones for each specific gene is called an epigenetic tag.  In the development and early life of identical twins, the epigenetic tags do not effect changes because the environments are very similar.  However, further in life, different environmental factors cause the epigenetic tags to activate and silence different genes, creating the differences in identical twins that everyone questions.  It states specific factors, such as diet, physical activity, exposure to toxins, and stress.  Obviously, this video is on the side of nurture.  I do believe that nurture is the reason why there would be differences in appearance and personality of identical twins, but if the epigenetic tags are the cause, isn’t that also slightly nature. Nature is what you are born with, and you are born with the epigenomes.  They begin to alter through environmental changes, but you first have to have them in order for them to cause the differences.  Therefore, I believe that it is mostly the environment (nurture) that causes differences, but it starts with the nature of ones DNA.

Sunday, April 27, 2014

Reducing Public Speaking Nervousness

Psychology today compiles five tips for reducing nervousness, after studies found that public speaking is the number one fear that people have, even ranking above death. Psychology today cites that people feel a certain emotional death when it comes to public speaking. The first tip is do not expect perfection from ones self. The over played statement of "we all make mistakes" very much applies to public speaking. The article promotes you to "keep going gracefully" even if you make a mistake. No one will notice small mistakes if you do not mention them or make a big deal of them. The second tip is avoid equating public speaking to your self worth. Public speaking is a skill, in which some intelligent well versed people have issue with, and should not be looked at as being how good or smart of a person you are. Like any skill public speaking can be learned. The third tip is avoid being nervous about your nervousness. Psychology today states that all nervousness is our adrenaline flowing. So try to turn that nervous energy into enthusiasm and charisma. The fourth tip is avoid trying to memorize every word. This will lead to stress and increase of that nervous energy. Lastly, avoid reading word for word. That will make for a dry presentation, try and "create an impact with you content".

effects of childerned under the age of 3 witnessing aggression

Similarly to the Bobo doll experiment we saw in class, this article looks at the effects of aggression on children. But this study went beyond just looking at young children, it looked at children under the age of three, whom are often seen as unaware. The study found that the children under the age of three who are around violence or witness violence are more likely to be violent when they turn of school age. Another interesting part of this study was that it found that the witnessed violence did not effect the children's behavior between ages 3 to 5. Which lead them to speculate that there may be a window of opportunity during that time, in which future violent actions can be reduced or redirected. This article was an overview of a study, so it did not get into specifics. That being said, it made me feel that it was a very vague study, even while it provided the number of the sample sizes.

Saturday, April 26, 2014

Agression in fruit flies

This article interestingly looks at a fruit flies brain to study aggression.  The most interesting part of the study is that fruit flies brain is not far from a human’s brain and can be used to potentially learn more about the human brain.  The article begins by stating that males are typically known for their aggression in the animal kingdom as well as fruit flies.  What is interesting “one gene and a tiny group of neurons, sometimes as few as three, present only in the brains of male fruit flies, that can control aggression.”  The gene is also found in mammals and maybe humans.  The quote that is the most striking is how the study is a “striking indication of how brain structure and chemistry work together, as well as a reminder that as different as humans and flies are, they are not always very far apart.”  In addition the study also unintentionally found a connection between flies and mammals for social behavior.  For potential uses the gene could be tested for symptoms like uncontrollable anger that can affect people with illnesses like post-traumatic stress syndrome.  This article is interesting to see the similarity of animals and insects brains to even humans.


Color has an incredible effect on your mood

Color has an incredible effect on your mood, color determines your likes and dislikes and its programmed into you. I think this article was very interesting, and it was very interesting to read. It gave out a lot of example showing how people use color to show their emotion. Like I said color plays with your mood and its programmed into you, human developed it over millions of years and its been a big part of our perception. When we see red we immediately associate it with anger or danger. This article doesn't talk about any physical evidence but it tells you what is happening in real life. For example it talk about how a lot of the corporate spends millions of dollars testing colors out because they know that depending on the color they can control and get more consumers. One other example this article pointed out was the color president Obama wears. When president needs the countries support or wants to show strength, you'll see blue tones and how he dresses because blue is a color of stability and loyalty. Red tie with white shirt and black suite means he is serious and is a fighter. Color really is a big part of our life.
This article doesn't directly talk about aggression but I thought it was some what related because its still talking about how it affect our mood. I never really thought too much about color in our life, I knew that they were some what of an effect in our life but never thought it could get this serious. I think this article was very interesting and it really did blow my mind on knowing how president and corporate plays with color this much to get what they want.

How to give out presentation

I personally hate doing presentation because I hate going up on stage and having people staring at me. To me there really isn't much psychology aspect to giving a presentation. For this blog post I have surfer around for many website and most of them seems to talk about preparing yourself. And I think thats very much correct, as long as you prepare your stuff well you can give out a great speech. I think everyone is able to go up on stage and give a talk, but its wether or not that person have all the information together or not. In this article it gives out 13 steps to giving a great presentation and for the first half its all about getting ready and writing out your script and practising what your going to say. I think in all 13 steps two points grabbed my attention the most, first one  is knowing your audience. Sometimes people give speech on what people don't want to hear about, or something that isn't interesting enough. I think understanding your audience and knowing what kind of material will get them to be interested is very important. Second point is to have interaction with the audience, people are there to hear you talk, but at the same time they want to experience it too. Interact with your audience so its not just talking, make it interesting so people want to keep listening to you.
So, I think preparing yourself, knowing your stuff well, and also remember to always think about the audience, don't keep talking about what you want to talk about.

Friday, April 25, 2014

How to Present

In presenting there are several things you can do to make it successful.  First stay calm,  is a large component.  If you have shaky hands do not hide them, demonstrating with your hands is effective in conveying a point.  The article says to avoid holding a piece of paper or a glass of water if your hands shaky.  Instead it suggests holding a remote or using your hands creatively.  In addition the article suggests that you present with a confident smile to come across as approachable.  With the presentation itself, project your voice louder than usual and know the visual content of your slides.  Being prepared before the presentation will help you combat a lot of the things that can potentially go wrong.  Your confidence will help you excel in the presentation.  In addition another that can go wrong is being flustered at someone's question after the presentation.  The article recommends that you only present information that you are really knowledgable on.  Presentations can be nerve wracking but the best thing you can do is be prepared and ready to present.  The advice in the article will help you but all comes down to how much you know the content of your presentation.


How to Present a Presentation


First off, 'Believe in yourself and your audience will too'.

Now, to get into the basics, you need to know the subject matter. You need to know why and what you're presenting and your audience. After you know what it's about, a good design in your presentation is key. Usually it's good to start off with a grid that will apply to all your slides. Lucky for us, most presentation creation programs come with this built in. If all else fails, get inspiration from other presentations or blogs.

Next, the link delves into presentation skills. One is to provide as many visual aids (pictures, graphs, tables) as possible; it is proven that people take in about 55% of the information and retain it longer if the material is visualized rather than text. 

The next step is to rehearse; if you've never went through this, it will be obvious by the pauses you make to orient yourself on the spot. Rehearse about four times and in front of an audience that you know can give you valid constructive criticism. Also, memorize your lines and if you don't have an audience to practice in front of, record yourself.

When arranging information in your presentation, remember that the audience will remember three main points. Make those points your introduction, middle and end. In addition, use a list of three whenever you can; less is more.

Lastly, if you can, incorporate some appropriate humor into your presentation. Not only will it be an icebreaker for your audience, but it will also loosen you up.

-Emily Szentkuti

The Origin of Passive Aggression

"Moreover, if we communicated our anger at their denial and their reaction to such assertiveness was scary or punishing, we would have learned to keep our anger strongly bolted inside, afraid to express that which would surely come back to haunt us."

I chose this article because of it's relevance to my own life. Originally, I intended to find an article about aggression, and ended up finding one about passive aggression; an indirect form of aggression. They talk about it's origin, how it forms in oneself over time. 

It is important to define passive aggressiveness: '"acting out" our grievances, behaviorally protesting what is experienced as unfair, while yet contriving to protect the relationship we really can't afford to jeopardize.'

It all begins with a want, that as a child we can't distinguish from a need. We expect that this want/need will be addressed automatically, as it had in the womb. When we ask for it, and the parental figure cannot provide, we feel disappointed. This repetitive disappointment becomes associated with things we want, to we repress our wants. We also don't want to depend on the parental figure that cannot provide for us and don't want to anger them in fear that we would have take our survival into our own hands; and that's way too anxiety-producing.

"Because experiencing these wants and needs can itself get connected in our minds with parental disapproval or rejection, we may well feel obliged to obliterate even the awareness that they exist."

Being assertive about our wants or needs result in disappointment or anger, so we result to passively addressing them where the punishment will be less substantial than if we have been honest about it. In conclusion, our parent's inability to take car of our dependency needs teaches us to become 'manipulators and liars'.

Since we had to depend on parental figures who weren't reliable, we also restrain ourselves in our adult life by refraining from any communication that could result in conflict and become distressing.

In addition, 'since we could never trust that our parents would respond positively to our needs, now grown up we're still not comfortable being in situations of dependency.' In the future, we need to try to resolve old anger and resentment, and accept that our parents gave us as much as they could.

-Emily Szentkuti

link to article

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

How to give more persuasive presentations: A Q&A with Nancy Duarte

It is always exciting to be inspired from the world's pioneers. TED talk always presents the most fascinating ideas from many fields with very clear presentation. Probably, many people think that they want to present like TED style which is effective and persuasive. Here, my article suggests how to give a persuasive presentation from an interview with presentation expert, Nancy Duarte. First, she points that the three keys to give a great presentation - Making a audience centric, understanding self role in the presentation, and wrapping a presentation with a story. At the stage she does relaxation action which is taking a deep breathe. It relaxes speaker's nervousness which leads to smooth talking. While in the presentation, she organizes her ideas within an order to make it more effective speaking for audience. Presentation skill is always important to communicate one's idea to another. I think this article gives a lot of tips on presentation skill.

To Study Aggression, a Fight Club for Flies

This article suggests very interesting experiment to study about aggression of male gender. Dr. Anderson uses fruit flies to observe why male would behave more aggressive than female. After, few observation, his research discovers the idea that the specific neuron that is only in male's brain affects fruit flies's action. After this simple experiment, Dr. Anderson begins more research on his hypothesis, neuropeptides, which is a sort of hormone that controls any fundamental behavior of creature. According to his opinion,  it is possible to identify the system and structure of what causes the aggression of human being and utilize for good reason.
Even though this approach to study one's aggression is very neuroscience and biological effort, it is important that this could also influence the research in psychology. If researchers can provide such data to analyze fly's behaviors to the psychologist's study, they can use them as a reference to prove their psychological hypotheses. 

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

How to Present Like Steve Jobs

In this article, there are specifically 5 tips given on how to present like the famous Steve Jobs. These five points are : Know the one critical point in your presentation -- then make it clear. Any information or data that isn’t driving a specific message can be a distraction that weakens the impact of your presentation. Use only visuals that support your one point. Acknowledge why people are listening to you. Your audience is in the room for a particular reason. It’s critical to understand why they’re listening to you so you can tune your presentation in a manner that makes them more receptive listeners. Make an immediate, personal connection. This connection builds empathy, which in turn encourages your audience to be more receptive to what you have to say. Keep the audience focused on you the speaker, not your presentation. The audience isn’t there to look at your slides. They’re there to see and listen to the presenter. Keep their focus on you. Know your story. You should know your content so completely that you are comfortable giving your presentation with no visuals at all.

I found this article not only interesting but it inspired me to keep these points in mind for all presentations in my classes as well as upcoming internships, and when dealing with clients in the professional world.

Genes And Environment Interact In First Graders To Predict Physical But Not Social Aggression

This article compares how physical aggression in children comes from their genes and the environment in which they grow up. On the other hand, social aggression, such as spreading rumors or ignoring other children, has more to do with environmental factors. In this article, scientists researched 400 pairs of 7 year old twins and assessed the genetic and environmental effects on children's physical and social aggression. They found that physical aggression in children tends to show itself more when children have physically aggressive friends. Genes were not associated with children's social aggression and instead based on the the friendship circles children were in.

I agree and relate to this article because as a kid growing up, and as an assistant teaching for kindergarteners, I notice that children tend to go with the group behavior. they may be raised a certain way at home and have certain genetics, however social bullying and aggression comes from being around friends who encourage it and do the same, so that they feel like they belong. 

Monday, April 21, 2014

Anyone can be a good speaker

Even though this article talks about how anyone can be a good speaker, I disagree. I HATE talking in front of people, and I don't think that will ever change. Although there are methods to make a speech better, or at least to appear more confident while talking, I don't think everyone is up for it, meaning me, I will never be comfortable with it. In the article, there are certain components that will help a person, that not all people have. It first talks about being attractive, and how naturally more attractive people will give better speeches. In a way I do understand this, because even if the audience doesn't like or care about what is being said, they can still just look at the person and be satisfied with that aspect. That being said, when giving a speech, it is probably a good idea to make your personal appearance presentable. The second suggestion is the way you talk about your subject. It is better not to generalize, because not everyone will agree on one thing, so it is better to talk about a specific person or situation and show how that did or did not work, depending on your topic. That way, people  cannot really disagree with you, because it is a specific example, and you are not speaking for everyone. Third, the speaker always has to consider his or her audience, and prepare the speech based on that. Age, race, gender, etc will determine what kind of specific ways of talking or wording will be used. Even though these three simple things may help prepare a person, it definitely doesn't make me want to get up and talk in front of people any more than I did.

Weather and Aggression

This article talks about how weather directly effects how irritable people can be relating to violence. Any extreme weather conditions can make people act more violent towards each other. There has been many instances where sudden change in weather has resulted in extreme chaos and conflict within civilizations over the years within all parts of the world. It was said that higher temperatures create more crime. This makes sense because we associate  heat with anger. When imagining someone who is upset they turn red, and have a high temperature. If the weather is already escalated, then the body temperature is as well, and therefore the person's senses are already showing symptoms that are shared by the feeling of being angry. Social class and financial stability has shown to have no influence on how the person may react to the heat, as all classes had similar results when studied. It was also said that extreme rainfall has a similar outcome in people's behavior. The heat was the main concern in this, and by this being the main concern the article brought up global warming, and how as time goes on the planet will become hotter and angrier.

Dear all Seniors: Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.

This video is of Steve Job's commencement speech at the 2005 Stanford University graduation. I watched it because in several of the other links I was looking into for this blog post, they all seemed to mention this speech. Upon watching it, I understood. It is sincere, thoughtful, open-minded, and above all passionate. Steve Jobs tells 3 stories about his life, and puts them as simply as possible. They are lessons about losing, winning, and trying. What makes them so great is the overarching and un-zoomed look at his words: he leaves the audience with an overall sense of reality. You CAN live your life in your way. You WILL fail at things, unexpectedly. These are important not as lessons, but as reminders. With my own graduation around the corner, a few of his points seemed to hit home. He (SPOILER ALERT) talks about death.
He doesn't talk about death as a somber reminder that we all have sadness ahead, and some form of loss. But rather that remembering that will free us from current limitations that we place on ourselves. Don'l live your life for anybody else, do what feels right, follow your heart, or in the words of Steve Jobs: Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish.

Aggression on Athleticism... Get your head in the game!

In this article, they touch upon how aggression is dealt with during a sports game. For some athletes, it can be the result of stress and pressure, and emerge in the form of venting. This will engage what the article calls "Hostile Aggression" and is described as having the intent of hurting or injuring another player/opponent. In contrast to this, the article also mentions another form of aggression that it refers to as "Instrumental Aggression." This form of aggression is encouraged in the game, and is all about the intent and control behind the specified use of aggressive force. if the goal or intent of the player is to win the ball, and not harm the other player in the process (in other words, controlled aggression within the limits/rules of the game), then it is proactive instrumental aggression and can be a valuable source of releasing stress and actually calming the mind. On the other hand, "harmful aggression" is a negative behavior. It is violating the agreed terms of the sport, as well as encouraging that kind of behavior in the aggressor.
Sports are very interesting because they are a physical activity that will require some form of aggression to succeed, especially if it's a contact sport. The psychological significance of this is pretty intriguing.

Bystanders Help Too Late

Bullying is an epidemic that has a long lasting effect on its victims. The US is more aware than ever of the harmful and deadly consequences of neglecting bullying in children from ages 7-16. I have attached a news article of a 12 years old named Rebecca Sedwick who was bullied for months online by girls at her school. Ultimately the cyberbullying lead to her committing suicide. After countless days of coming home from school crying Rebecca's Mother was confident in what could have driven Rebecca to kill herself.

The question now lies in where were her teachers, parents, and other adults who could have noticed and prevented this horrible event from happening. In this case, it may be less about not acting with helping behavior, but perhaps implementing it too late. It is well understood that many times bullying is not noticed because both the victim and inflictors keep it hidden from authority figures. From fear to embarrassment, the reasons for not coming forward with bullying vary from situation to situation. The mother took many steps once it was clear that the online harassment was becoming unbearable. She closed Rebeccas' facebook, filed a bullying complaint, and event switched Rebecca from school.

Unfortunately, with the internet these girls continued to bully Rebecca through social media. Noticing the problem, interpreting the problem, and taking responsibility was doe on the mothers side, but her school unfortunately barely accomplished noticing there was a problem and clearly did not do enough to punish the girls who were inflicting such pain. Rebeccas' mother stated " they just blew it off." On the schools behalf, I believe there should have been a faster response on the bullying compliant that was filed by the mother. There needed to be a faster mediation between the girls and better monitoring of the online bullying.

No one did anything

This post doesn't have a particular reference from the internet, but it concerns the Holocaust and how the resident's of Germany did nothing to stop it. You see, Germany was in a euphoria during the second world war, their leader, Adolf Hitler, was effective in propaganda to make it seem like they were winning the whole time, even in the last hours of the war. German people were led to believe that they were the best and the events concerning the Jews weren't publicized within Germany. The German people, even if they did live across the field from a concentration camp, did not question authority.
In this case in history, the German people did not help the Jews because they were completely ignorant of what was actually going on and even if they did find out, so many people were brainwashed by constant propaganda that no one questioned the authority, not even the workers in the camps. No one did anything because no one else dared to do anything.

-Emily Szentkuti

Girls gone wild, and murderous

In this article about 10 of the worst "bystander effect" examples, a 12-year old girl was abducted and murdered by 4 teenage girls. The four girls were into wicca, lesbianism, witchcraft, gothic culture, etc. Essentially the teenage goth routine, but on a more dramatized scale. They claim to have kidnapped the 12 year old girl because one of the teenage girls claims she "stole her friend."
What horrified me most while reading the article is how far they all went. From the beginning, it seems clear (in the article) that not all of the girls involved were ready to actually kill her, or even wanted to in the first place.
It's a strange combination of bystander effect and peer pressure. The girls claim that they all thought it would stop at some point, but by the 6th hour of abduction the 12 year old had been stabbed, beaten, and strangled several times. Finally, she was burned. By this point (many hours after having kidnapped her and dragging her around in the trunk of a car), one of the girls actually told another girl, in an attempt to get her to call the police. The girl was afraid, and since others knew about it too she didn't want to be the one who got involved and became an "accomplice." It took 2 days for the body to be found, and 6 girls knew in total, of which only 2 were the main "killers."
Crazy world we live in.

Bystanders at party watch 5 stabbed.

This article describes a house party in Calgary that was being held by college students to celebrate the last day of classes. However, one student violently attacked and stabbed 5 others in front of everyone at the party. The attacks were allegedly unprovoked, and my guess is that the helping behavior broke down in-between steps 2 and 3. Everyone at the party clearly interpreted the emergency, but nobody stepped up to disarm the attacker. I believe this was because they weighed the benefit of cost vs. rewards, and that all of the bystanders were too worried for their personal safety to intervene. The killer was invited to the party, seemingly another friend of the students, so it is probable that the majority of guests knew the kid and decided not to help in the face of a large kitchen knife. He was the son of an ex calgary police officer, and the reason for the attacks has not yet been determined.

Bystander Effect in a Subway Tragedy

This article is about a 58 year old man, Ki-Suck Han, who had an altercation with a homeless man in the Times Square subway station. As a result of the altercation, the man was pushed into the tracks, and could not get up. It was in the middle of the day, so there were many people there, and the witnesses did nothing to help. It was said that some witnesses even took pictures while watching, and after he begged for help no one came to assist him. People clearly 1. noticed the event, as it was a fight resulting in the man being stuck in the track, and people were engaged in watching. 2. Interpreted it as a problem, because how could one not if the person is specifically asking for help to get up and not be hit by a train. 3. Assuming personal responsibility is where it becomes tricky. There were many people, so that automatically makes people freeze and expect the others to do something. Also there is a chance that they could get hurt, incase by pulling the man up, they fell in the tracks. 4. Knowing how to help is something that has multiple options, as a person could directly go to the man and pull him up or run for help, or talk to other people about creating a solution to the problem. In this case it seems that no one did any of those things. That is when it stopped, because the man was hit by a train and died. 

Poor Crisis Resolution

This is a perfect example of the first rule of crisis resolution not being followed. In 1999 The Mars Climate Orbiter crashed into the Pacific Ocean due to a miscommunication over the English system of measurement and the Metric System. When investigators spoke with the engineers following the crash many stated that they thought something was wrong and that the alternate system of measurement was being used but they weren't entirely sure. The doubt of their own ability to sense an emergency followed by the inaction of those around them led to a catastrophe that cost millions of dollars. If the engineers had communicated with one another better and voiced their concerns a true crisis could have been averted. In the workplace most of us try to stay under the radar. No one wants to make a fool of themselves even if it means possibly sacrificing the integrity of the product being made. This is exactly what happened with NASA. No one wanted to bring up such a silly simple issue for fear that they would be made a fool of. This fear of judgement/unfounded trust in the observations and actions of others was the difference between a stupid easy fixed mistake and a full blown catastrophe.

After toddler's death, Good Samaritan rules drafted in China

In this article, the author talk about there is finally good movement to prevent bystander accidents. He mentions a very tragic accident that happened in China to emphasize his argument. 2-year old toddler was ran over twice by trucks while there were 18 passengers ignoring the situation. The recorded video of this moment got spread throughout the world and people started becoming aware of how social pressure, such as state law, can strongly effect and change the reaction towards to such a Toddler's tragedy. And The newly drafted regulations state that Good Samaritans generally won’t be liable for unfortunate consequences that result from their actions.

Sunday, April 20, 2014

Deaf Woman Robbed At Detroit Gas Station

To summarize this article, a death women was at a gas station when a man approached her and started a conversation. Clearly she did understand what he was saying and alerted him that she was deaf and walked away. After the man returned he pushed the women and stole her phone. She went into the gas station and wrote on a paper to call 911 while she was crying. So the clerk had to have completed step one of helping behavior which is noticing. But he did not call the police and just "went about his business". This is where the situation when "wrong" at step two. The man clearly did not perceive any danger and emergency so his helping the situation ended at that point. The next interesting part of the story is that the women ended up going home without contacting the police because she thought the situation would be perceived as frivolous.  I would venture to say that the clerks reaction had an effect on the woman causing her not to contact the police even after she initially wanted to.

Detroit woman who stopped attack reflects the changing norms of heroism

The first step in “The Five Steps to Helping in an Emergency” after the Emergency is Step 1- Notice that something is happening.  This step is in some ways the most critical as the individual must first notice something is wrong.  For example in some cases the situation might be more noticeable than others.  In the article called “Detroit woman who stopped attack reflects the changing norms of heroism” in the Washington post the lady discusses stepping into a mob to stop the beating of a driver who accidently stuck a 10 year old.  This emergency is interesting because there was in some ways a mob mentality was happening but Deborah Hughes in some ways acted as a hero to stop their actions.  Hughes stopped the group of half a dozen men and teenagers but running into the crowd and saying “please don’t hit him anymore.”  In this case Deborah effectively followed through the path to providing help in a textbook manner.  The emergency was the beating of the driver and step 1 she noticed it was happening, 2 interpreted it as an emergency, 3 took responsibility by trying to stop the crowd, 4 decided how to help by saying please stop and then 5 she provided help by massaging the drivers neck to help his circulation.